A 2009 Canadian study of minor league hockey players found a widespread lack of knowledge about concussion signs and symptoms, when it was safe to return to play after a concusion, and how concussions are treated.
The findings were reported in the May 2009 Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences.
"Serious misconceptions exist among minor league hockey players, athletes, coaches and parents when it comes to understanding the signs and symptoms of a concussion and its treatment," said study author, Dr. Michael Cusimano, a professor of neurosurgery, education and public health at the University of Toronto and vice-president of ThinkFirst Canada, a national injury prevention organization.
"While many can identify how a concussion may occur, most cannot identify the symptoms and are under the impression that concussions can be treated with physician-prescribed medication or physical therapy. Many also believe it's okay to return to play before they have fully recovered from such a brain injury. This is troublesome since repeated brain injuries can lead to long term effects in functions such as memory, behavior, mood, social relations and school or work performance."
Key study findings
Up to two thirds of players had the mistaken impression that a player has to lose consciousness to have suffered a concussion
A quarter of adults and up to half of children could not identify any symptoms of a concussion or could name only one symptom of a concussion.
About one-half of players and a fifth of adults mistakenly believed concussions are treated with medication or physical therap
- About a quarter of all players did not know if an athlete experiencing symptoms of a concussion should continue playing (the should not).
- About 4 in 10 of younger players and 3 in 10 of the older players mistakenly thought a concussed athlete could safely return to play when feeling "90% better" or even "while experiencing a mild headache for the next game as long as it's at least two days later."
In Canada, ice hockey is the main cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Statistics suggest youth 5 to 17 have about 2.8 concussions per 1,000 player-hours of ice hockey while university and elite amateur players sustain rates of 4.2 and 6.6 concussions per 1,000 player hours.
Concussions have forced many NHL players like Brett Lindros and Pat LaFontaine to retire early and others like Eric Lindros and goalie Mike Richter to stay off the ice for an extended time because of repeated head injuries. Concussions can have cumulative and lasting effects on memory, judgment, social conduct, reflexes, speech, balance and co-ordination. Key to preventing repeated injuries is to recognize the symptoms of concussion when they occur and knowing how to deal with their effects.
Win-at-all-costs attitude clouds judgment
"Motivation to win, the wish to advance in their sport and earning the acceptance of their team-mates often outweigh an athletes' decision, or their parents' or coaches' decision, to play safe. This mind-set, coupled with the influence of media and behaviour of some parents, coaches and officials, unfortunately send a clear message that it is more important to continue to play injured than take someone out of the game," said Dr. Cusimano.
"This 'win at all costs' attitude places added responsibility on parents, coaches and medical professionals to recognize symptoms of a concussion and take all necessary steps to ensure a culture of healthy attitudes and behaviours among players and in leagues."
Changes in rules such as removing fighting and body checking, proper use of helmets, softer shoulder and elbow pads, improved enforcement of rules, educational efforts and recognizing the critical role that professionals and the media have in shaping the culture of the sport would be beneficial, he added.
Source: St. Michael's Hospital
Created February 3, 2010